The constructivism it is based, mainly, on the child's learning from his own experiences. It is teaching from what interests learners, their own concerns to find a practical sense to study the various subjects (this does not mean that only issues that interest students are dictated in class).
Always return the same question: What is the use of History?.
The answers can be many, but synthetically we will say:
- To understand how we get to the current world, where we are and evaluate where we are going. It is to be able to understand the present, the news, be agents of social, political, economic and cultural changes and be able to make decisions to live better.
- As a result of the changes, which are constant, varied and of great magnitude, History must contribute to construct collective referents, senses about oneself and the different "we" that exist in society.
The teaching of History should allow our students to build a sense of changing reality and, at the same time, build forms of identification to strengthen them as protagonists of the past, present and future.
WAYS TO KNOW:
The ways of knowing in the school have changed over time, adapting to the reality for which it was taught. Next we will comment 3 ways to know.
- 1) With the positivism the way of knowing was atomized. It means appropriating a part of the natural and social reality. Tempor-spatial units, parts of knowledge are cut out. This is seen when dates, battles and characters stand out without taking into account the context in which they occurred. The subjects appear as watertight compartments preventing confronting their knowledge and solving real problematic situations.2) The anti–positivism promoted another form of knowledge, the relational. It means appropriating the totality, perceiving the whole. It is the thought structural–functionalist. It fosters the association and confrontation of elements of a given system with each other.3) The current is the mode procedural to know. It is the initial perception of the whole but it takes each element and the whole as the product of a process. The contradictions that arise are the engines of change. It is the re-construction of processes. The knowing is constructed from the subject; the student is not passive or must abstract the ideas, builds them.
The mode procedural includes the other two, atomized Y relational, that is why it is the true way to know. When the students know the processes, it is because they have knowledge of the structures and the facts.
What is meant by process? … is a stage where there are problems that are resolved with certain characteristics (that do not change anything or that great changes occur). By seeing the process the students will have a clear vision of what it was like at the beginning and what it was like at the end; encompasses the why, what facts indicate a change ?, what is changed ?.
In the approach constructivist the student builds his own knowledge and the teacher guide and gives you the contents for it. How?.
We must bear in mind that our students are not a clean slate, they arrive at school after receiving a formal and non-formal education; They already bring knowledge acquired through their life experiences, they have interests, concerns and know many things that even teachers ignore and that generally do not take them into account for the development of the teaching-learning process; They have a lot of preconceptions that form their previous cognitive structure.
First we must find out what is their structure cognitive, your preconceptions Y then put him in crisis with his own preconceptions to motivate him because we will becreating a need for knowledge. When we already have an idea of the situation it is time to choose the contents of our subject in relation to the thematic axes that will be sent to us by the Ministry. This does not mean a loss of importance of the traditional contents but a different hierarchy and a complementarity between the different types of content.
THE COMPONENTS OF PLANNING
- The eighteenth century.
- Argentina in the international division of labor.
- The Confederation and Buenos Aires.
- The crisis of '29.
Are the questions to work to get the answer. Are the problems to solve according to the axes thematic who will send us. The problematic we invent them and, according to them, we will give the students the acts, concepts, beginning, Procedures Y attitudes that we consider necessary.
|The French Revolution||The French Revolution finished?|
|The May Revolution||The May Revolution was a revolution ?.|
|The Confederation and Buenos Aires.||Who was right, Rosas, Urquiza or Miter?|
|Historical presidencies.||Why agro-export and non-industrial project ?.|
|Argentina in the international division of labor.||Country model or country model ?.|
|Populism||Why Perón ?.|
|Political institutions between 1930 and 1976.||Why the Coups of State ?.|
|Argentina between 1983 and 2000.||Advances or setbacks ?.|
Acts, concepts Y beginning:
The facts are information of something that happened. The fact it is a factual, particular knowledge, it is information that is only remembered. Thus, their learning only consists of memorization. Isolated knowledge does not serve to understand what and why it happened.
The concepts they are essential to interpret and connect acts. The learning of concepts differs from the ones acts. To acquire a concept necessary understand it, explain it with your own words, translate it from the previous representations that are possessed.
Next, a table made by César Coll is transcribed.
|Learning of acts||Learning of concepts|
|Consists in||Literal copy.||relationship with previous knowledge.|
|It is reached by||Repetition (rote learning).||Understanding (meaningful learning)|
|It is acquired||At once.||gradually.|
|Forget||Quickly without review.||more slowly and gradually.|
To guide learning and also to evaluate what has been learned is necessary to work with networks conceptual. The networks conceptual they are elaborated with related nodes by arrows on which the linking words are written (verbs and prepositions) and which are the ones that give them meaning. At the beginning we must find out what the students know about the subject and with such preconceptions build a net conceptual simple that will be completed as you progress in learning.
The beginning They refer to globalize the period. A principle is the concept of concepts. It may not appear in the planning as one more column, but as a final aggregate.
To exemplify we will say:
|Storming of the Bastille.||French Revolution.||Transformations of the eighteenth century.|
|Arrival of Columbus to America.||Renaissance.||Mentality change.|
They are the object of knowledge, constitute a series of actions ordered to comply a certain objective. They require an action to reach the goal and such action indicates that one knows how to do something; it is not the methodologies (take a lesson, that the teacher explains) or the resources (texts, videos, maps, documents).
Generally the Procedures they are associated with the manual or practical. But there are also the Procedures internal by means of which physical objects are not manipulated but symbols, ideas, concepts, images. In this case the Procedures they involve operating with information, involve different "ways of thinking". The teaching of traditional history forgot the procedures to which we are referring.
The teacher gives acts valid, understandable, chronologically united and from there the concept. How do we do it?. With activities, skills, steps (relate, everything has to do with everything, has causes and consequences). It means interpreting, demonstrating, observing, analyze, compare, relate, etc.. A processbasic is to contextualize a fact, a situation, a problem, that is, relate them with the different dimensions of social reality in a non-mechanical or deterministic way but understanding reality as a complex whole where the political, economic, social, ideological-cultural and spatial make up an articulated globality.
Other process basic is to be able to locate a fact, a situation or a problem in a temporary sequence. Capacity related to being able to discriminate the antecedents, the causes, the effects and the consequences and to explain not in a linear way but through the principle of the multicausality.
To the process the teacher must teach it: "Today I do it, tomorrow you do it".
The attitudes its about thoughts, feelings, preferences that translate into the way of speaking or acting. The school has always taught attitudes but never in an explicit way. A democratic attitude would imply knowing what democracy consists of, being passionate about it and defending it in a debate. In addition to the democratic we can name others such as responsibility in the task, participation in class, tolerance, solidarity, respect for human values, interest in public affairs, respect for the duties and rights of citizens, curiosity to know, relativity, antidogmatism, rigor in thinking, critical attitude, understanding, etc.
The attitudes they are incorporated throughout the learning process through praise, sanction, privilege, qualification, limitation, identification, comparison or differentiation, etc. Therefore, all actions of teachers and students at the group and individual levels will promote His learning.
How do we evaluate all this?
In principle I must clarify that the course on evaluation will be made in the coming months. However we can stick to the following:
- 1) In the planning that we present as a model, the column does not appear, but it must do so.2) The evaluation it is an essential aspect in teaching because it affects its quality.3) The evaluation criteria define and include concepts, Procedures Y attitudes. It is to see the adjustments or inadequacies throughout the process of construction of the new learnings.4) It does not mean taking a written test -which can be done since it is another activity- but doing activities that will be evaluated in concepts, procedures and attitudes (one or more at a time).
When we request an investigation about the life of Domingo F. Sarmiento and require that through a report relate the data and considerations of the authors with the general theme of the unit -formation of the national state-, we can evaluate procedures (ability to contextualize a phenomenon), we can evaluate the application of concepts (civilization, modernization, educational system, liberalism, democracy, colonization) and we can also evaluate attitudes (exploratory, critical judgment, etc.).
EXAMPLE OF CONCEPTUAL NETWORK:
EXAMPLE OF THE STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THEME:
The following is an example, it is not the only way to develop a theme.
Objective: Understand the phenomenon of Nazism.
Problematic: Why Hitler ?.
- 1) Make a semantic map with what the students know.2) Establish, in dialogue with the teacher, what is needed to find out.3) Divide the course into groups of 3 or 4 students.4) Each group will look for information in their books, texts, videos, etc. about why Hitler ?. The information is categorized.
5) Each group performs timelines according to what was read.
6) Each group expresses what it concluded of its work. The debate is encouraged.
7) Each one (or groups) makes a semantic map with the concepts seen.
8) Each one (or groups) performs a conceptual network using the concepts given in point 7.
9) Each one (or groups) choose 3 concepts (they can also be chosen by the teacher).
10) Each one (or groups) makes an explanation of the entire conceptual network based on the 3 chosen concepts.
11) A description of Germany is made before Nazism and after Nazism.
a.- What facts show that Nazism was totalitarian ?.
b.- What is the relationship between the crisis of '29, the working class and Hitler's power?
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